Types of Adoption
Depending on the needs of the child, birth parent and adoptive parents, parties to an adoption have several options to choose from. The type of adoption that you choose depends on where the child is located, the laws guiding the adoption process, among many other factors. Below are different types of adoption:
- Adoption through an agency
Adoption agencies are private or public agencies licensed and regulated by the state to place children with adoptive parents. Public adoption agencies usually handle children who are taken care of by the state, often because they have been abused, abandoned or orphaned. On the other hand, private adoption agencies are usually run by social service organizations and charities, and they usually host children who have been brought there by parents who are seeking to give their child for adoption.
- Independent adoption
This is the type of adoption when the parent of the child agrees to give their child to adoptive parent without passing through an agency. In most cases, this type of adoption usually involves a mediator, such as a member of the clergy or a doctor. Independent adoption is usually very complicated in the United States. Many people who have to choose to take this path have had a rough time keeping the child because of not following the correct legal procedures. A parent seeking to take this path is therefore encouraged to hire a qualified attorney to handle the paperwork that the state requires. Independent adoption usually allows the biological parent to maintain some form of contact with the child (although limited) even after the adoption process is complete.
- International adoption
This is the most complicated form of adoption. In order to adopt a child who is a citizen of another country, you must not only comply with United States law, but you must also comply with the legislation of the host country. Adoption parents must also obtain an immigrant visa for the child via the correct United States citizenship and immigration services. You can choose to adopt through an agency or alone. However, due to the complexity of this type of adoption, parents are usually encouraged to use a United States agency that has specialized in international adoptions.
- Adopting through identification
Adoption through identification is actually a combination of agency and independent adoption. Typically the adoptive parent usually locates parents who want to put their child for adoption. Both of them approach an adoption agency to control the rest of the process. This type of adoption is highly beneficial because the adoptive parents not only have more control of choosing the child that they wish to adopt, but they also benefit from the professional services provided by the agency.
- Stepparent adoption
Stepparent adoption occurs when a parent’s new spouse actually adopts the parent’s child from a different partner. This process is not as complicated as an independent adoption. All that is needed is consent from both parents and an attorney to ensure that all legal paperwork is well taken of.
- Relative adoption
Relative adoption occurs when a child’s relative decides to adopt the child. In most cases, people who usually prefer this type of adoption are aunts, uncles or grandparents and it is typically as a result of incapacitation or death of birth parents.